MANCOZEB 80% WP

MANCOZEB 80% WP

FRAC M3, M  multi-site: alkylenebis(dithiocarbamate)


NOMENCLATURE
Common name manzeb (JMAF); mancozeb (BSI, E-ISO); mancozèbe ((m) F-ISO)  IUPAC name manganese ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (polymeric) complex with zinc salt
Chemical Abstracts name [[1,2-ethanediylbis[carbamodithioato]](2-)]manganese mixture with [[1,2-ethanediylbis[carbamodithioato]](2-)]zinc  CAS RN [8018–01–7], formerly [8065–67–6]; number also applies to other mixed manganese and zinc ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) complexes

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Composition The ISO definition is ‘a complex of zinc and maneb containing 20% of manganese and 2.55% of zinc, the salt present being stated (for instance mancozeb chloride)’. A manufacturer gives c. 20% Mn and 2.2% Zn. Mol. wt. 271.2 (based on Composition) M.f. [C4H6MnN2S4]xZny  Form Greyish-yellow, free flowing powder, with a slight odour of hydrogen sulfide.  M.p. Decomposes above 172 °C  V.p. <1.33 × 10-2 mPa (20 °C), (est., based on similar ionic solids) Kow logP = 0.26 Henry <5.9 × 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 (calc.) S.g./density 1.99 (20 °C) Solubility In water 6.2 ppm (pH 7.5, 25 °C). Insoluble in most organic solvents; depolymerises in solutions of powerful chelating agents but cannot be recovered from them. Stability Stable under normal, dry storage conditions. Slowly decomposed by heat and moisture. On hydrolysis, mean DT50 20 h (pH 5), 21 h (pH 7), 27 h (pH 9) (all 25 °C). Mancozeb a.i. is unstable and the tech. is not isolated; the formulated product is produced in continuous process. pKa 10.3 F.p. Not flammable in the sense of the method EEC A10

COMMERCIALISATION
History Fungicide reported in Fungic. Nematic. Tests, 1961, 17. Introduced by Rohm & Haas Co. (now Dow AgroSciences) and by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. Patents GB 996264; US 3379610; US 2974156 (all to Rohm & Haas) Manufacturers  Dow AgroSciences; DuPont; A&Fine; Agria; Agrochem; AgroDragon; Baocheng; CAC; Cerexagri; Crystal; Gujarat Pesticides; Hindustan; Hubei Sanonda; Indofil; Iprochem; Jiangsu Baoling; Limin; Nantong Jiangshan; Sabero; Shenyang HarvestUnited Phosphorus

APPLICATIONS
Biochemistry Reacts with, and inactivates, the sulfhydryl groups of amino acids and enzymes of fungal cells, resulting in disruption of lipid metabolism, respiration and production of ATP. Mode of action Broad-spectrum, non-systemic fungicide with protective action. Uses Control of many fungal diseases in a wide range of field crops, fruit, nuts, vegetables, ornamentals, etc. More frequent uses include control of early and late blights (Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani) of potatoes and tomatoes; downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and black rot (Guignardia bidwellii) of vines; downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) of cucurbits; scab (Venturia inaequalis) of apples; Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella spp.) of bananas; and melanose (Diaporthe citri) of citrus. Typical application rates are 1500–2000 g/ha. Used for foliar application or as a seed treatment. Formulation types DP; DS; OD; SC; WG; WP. Compatibility Not compatible with oxidising agents or acids.

PRODUCTS
Selected products  Aimcozeb  (Aimco) ;  Caiman  (Arysta LifeScience) ;  Defend M 45  (Crop Health) ;  Devidayal M-45  (Devidayal) ;  Dithane  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane M-45  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Fl-80 Fuerte  (Lainco) ;  Fore  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Hermozeb  (Hermoo) ;  Hilthane  (Hindustan) ;  Indofil M-45  (Indofil) ;  Ivory  (Arysta LifeScience) ;  Kifung  (Inquiport) ;  Kilazeb  (Baocheng) ;  Manco  (Mobedco) ;  Mancosol  (Ingeniería Industrial) ;  Mancothane  (Vapco) ;  Mandy  (Heranba) ;  Manex II  (DuPont) ;  Manzate  (DuPont) ;  Micene  (Sipcam S.p.A.) ;  Suncozeb  (Sundat) ;  Uthane  (United Phosphorus) ;  Vimancoz  (Vipesco) ;  Zeb  (Nagarjuna Agrichem) mixtures  Cuprosate 45  (+cymoxanil +copper oxychloride)  (Agria) ;  Cuprosate Gold  (+cymoxanil)  (Agria) ;  Curtine-V  (+cymoxanil)  (Vapco) ;  Duett M  (+cymoxanil)  (Cequisa) ;  Electis  (+zoxamide)  (Gowan) ;  Equation Contact  (+famoxadone)  (DuPont) ;  Fantic M  (+benalaxyl-M)  (Isagro) ;  Gavel  (+zoxamide)  (Gowan) ;  Melody Med  (+iprovalicarb)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Micexanil  (+cymoxanil)  (Sipcam S.p.A.) ;  Mike  (+flumorph)  (Shenyang Research) ;  Milor  (+metalaxyl)  (Rotam) ;  Pergado MZ  (+mandipropamid)  (Syngenta) ;  Ridomil Gold MZ  (+metalaxyl-M)  (Syngenta) ;  Sereno  (+fenamidone)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Sun Dim  (+dimethomorph)  (Sundat) ;  Tairel  (+benalaxyl)  (Sipcam S.p.A.) ;  Trecatol M  (+benalaxyl)  (FMC) ;  Valbon  (+benthiavalicarb-isopropyl)  (Kumiai) ;  Decabane  (+ametoctradin)  (BASF) Other products  Acarie M  (Siapa) ;  Addax  (Arysta LifeScience EAME) ;  Agrizeb  (Agrimport) ;  Ancozeb  (Ancom) ;  Azinmag  (Zagro) ;  Baronet  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  BG Ancozeb  (Ancom) ;  Chemispor  (Chemiplant) ;  Cobrethane  (with copper)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Cozeb  (Zagro) ;  Crittox MZ  (Siapa) ;  Cuprozeb  (with copper)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dhanuka M-45  (Dhanuka) ;  Dicozeb  (Agrochem) ;  Disan  (Zagro) ;  Dithane 60  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane 75  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane F 448  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane F-45  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane F MB  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane Neotec  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane NT  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane SH  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Emthane M-45  (Sabero) ;  Eurofil-NT  (Indofil) ;  Fore 80  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Forthane  (Zagro) ;  Fumazin  (Hektaş) ;  Grain Guard  (Trace) ;  Grizeb  (Colombia)  (DuPont) ;  Hydroman  (Sulphur Mills) ;  Karamate  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Lucazeb  (Lucava) ;  Mancofae  (Cequisa) ;  Mancoflow  (Efal) ;  Manconex  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Mancotel  (Efal) ;  Mancozide  (Zagro) ;  Mancozin  (Crystal) ;  Manfil  (Indofil) ;  Mangrif  (Hektaş) ;  Mankotam  (AgroSan) ;  Manzate 200  (DuPont) ;  Manzeb  (Chemia, ;Zagro) ;  McZidan  (Zagro) ;  Milcozebe  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Molthane  (Gujarat Pesticides) ;  Nemispor  (Isagro) ;  Parafungus  (Planters Products) ;  Penncozeb  (Nufarm Ltd, ;Nufarm UK, ;United Phosphorus Inc) ;  Pennfluid  (Cerexagri) ;  Pentathlon  (SePRO) ;  Persist  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Pilarzen  (Pilarquim) ;  Policar MZ  (Cequisa) ;  Protect  (Cleary) ;  Prozeb  (Protex) ;  P.S.T. Plus Bark  (Plant Health Technologies) ;  Quell Flo  (Interfarm) ;  R 6 Erresei  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Raman  (Chimiberg) ;  Rasayan M-45  (Krishi Rasayan) ;  Spoutnik  (Belchim) ;  Supercozeb  (Doğal) ;  Tata M-45  (Rallis) ;  Titan  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  UniZeb  (United Phosphorus) ;  Vitex MZ  (Siapa) ;  Vondozeb  (Cequisa, ;Cerexagri) ;  Ziman-Dithane  (Dow AgroSciences) mixtures  Academic  (+cymoxanil)  (Sipcam Agro) ;  Acrobat MZ  (+dimethomorph)  (BASF) ;  Adagio  (+chlorothalonil)  (Interfarm) ;  Aderio  (+zoxamide)  (Gowan) ;  Afrosan Duplo  (+copper oxychloride)  (Afrasa) ;  Alfil Duplo  (+fosetyl-aluminium)  (Afrasa) ;  Armetil M  (+metalaxyl)  (IQV) ;  Aromil MZ  (+metalaxyl)  (Mobedco) ;  Artimon  (+fosetyl-aluminium)  (Philagro) ;  Bakthane  (+myclobutanil)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Baldo M  (+benalaxyl)  (Herbos) ;  Bion M  (+acibenzolar-S-methyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Blighter  (+cymoxanil)  (Nufarm UK) ;  Borzol Combi NC  (+copper oxychloride)  (Siapa) ;  Broada  (+myclobutanil)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Capri M  (+benalaxyl-M)  (Sapec) ;  Carma  (+carbendazim)  (Sulphur Mills) ;  Cimogrizeb  (Colombia)  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  CL 197509  (+dimethomorph)  (BASF) ;  Clip  (+famoxadone)  (DuPont) ;  CM-75  (+carbendazim)  (Krishi Rasayan) ;  Companion  (+carbendazim)  (Indofil) ;  Crioram  (+copper sulfate)  (Phyteurop) ;  Cupertine M  (+Bordeaux mixture)  (IQV) ;  Cuprofix MZ  (+copper sulfate (tribasic))  (United Phosphorus Inc) ;  Cuproman  (+copper oxychloride)  (Cequisa) ;  Curathane  (+cymoxanil)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Cure-M  (+metalaxyl)  (Agrochem) ;  Curezín  (+copper oxychloride +zineb)  (IQV) ;  Curzate M  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont, ;Nufarm GmbH) ;  Curzate M68  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  Curzeb  (+cymoxanil)  (Hektaş) ;  Cyclo  (+metalaxyl)  (Afrasa) ;  Cym Combi  (+copper oxychloride +cymoxanil)  (IQV) ;  Cymozeb  (+cymoxanil)  (Protex) ;  Dhanuxyl  (+metalaxyl)  (Dhanuka) ;  Dikar  (+dinocap)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithane Duo  (+myclobutanil)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Dithiobin  (+thiophanate-methyl)  (Iharabras) ;  Drago  (+cymoxanil)  (Efal) ;  Ekyp MZ  (+metalaxyl)  (Sapec) ;  Emcarb  (+carbendazim)  (Sabero) ;  EPERON  (+metalaxyl-M)  (Syngenta) ;  Eucrit piu’ MZ  (+benalaxyl-M)  (Siapa) ;  Eucrit Plus MZ  (+metalaxyl-M)  (Siapa) ;  Evolve  (+cymoxanil +thiophanate-methyl)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Fl+Karnak  (+folpet)  (Lainco) ;  Fongibleu  (+copper hydroxide)  (Nufarm SAS) ;  Fosim Triplo  (+folpet +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Agrimix) ;  Frumidor M  (+thiophanate-methyl)  (Sipcam Inagra) ;  Fubol Gold  (+metalaxyl-M)  (Syngenta) ;  Galben M  (+benalaxyl)  (FMC) ;  Gana  (+myclobutanil)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Gaucho MZ  (+imidacloprid)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Gemini  (+fenamidone)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Globe  (+cymoxanil)  (Sipcam UK) ;  Guru  (+chlorothalonil)  (Interfarm) ;  Hydromax  (+copper hydroxide)  (Nufarm SAS) ;  Input N  (+benalaxyl +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Siapa) ;  Intro Plus  (+benalaxyl)  (Interfarm) ;  Invader  (+dimethomorph)  (BASF) ;  Jiashuangling  (+metalaxyl)  (Jiangsu Baoling, ;Zhongwei) ;  Junction  (+copper hydroxide)  (SePRO) ;  K3  (+copper hydroxide +cymoxanil)  (Ingeniería Industrial, ;Zagro) ;  Keeper Triplo  (+cymoxanil +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Chimiberg) ;  Kocide Combi  (+copper hydroxide)  (DuPont) ;  Konkret  (+copper oxychloride)  (Azot) ;  Krilaxyl  (+metalaxyl)  (Krishi Rasayan) ;  Laikenia  (+cymoxanil)  (Lainco) ;  Laincobre M  (+copper oxychloride)  (Lainco) ;  Macamba  (+carbendazim)  (Heranba) ;  Maestro M  (+fosetyl-aluminium)  (Sapec) ;  Mancolax  (+metalaxyl)  (Plaaskem S.A.) ;  Mancy  (+cymoxanil)  (Chemia) ;  Mandore  (France)  (+iprovalicarb)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Manhandle  (+myclobutanil)  (Lesco) ;  ManKocide  (+copper hydroxide)  (DuPont) ;  Manoxil  (+cymoxanil)  (AgroSan) ;  Mantox  (+copper oxychloride)  (Vapco) ;  Mantox-Forte  (+copper sulfate +copper oxychloride)  (Vapco) ;  Master  (+metalaxyl)  (Rallis) ;  Matador  (+metalaxyl)  (Herbos) ;  Matco 8-64  (+metalaxyl)  (Indofil) ;  Matilda  (+cymoxanil)  (Nufarm UK) ;  Maxim MZ  (+fludioxonil)  (Syngenta) ;  Melody Trio  (Italy)  (+iprovalicarb +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Metalmen  (+metalaxyl)  (Zagro) ;  Metamac  (+metalaxyl)  (AgroSan) ;  Metaman  (+metalaxyl)  (Cequisa) ;  Metamix M  (+metalaxyl)  (Agrimix) ;  Metasan  (+metalaxyl)  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Mevaxil M  (+metalaxyl)  (IQV Italia) ;  Mevaxil Triple  (+metalaxyl +cymoxanil)  (Agrimport) ;  Midas  (+famoxadone)  (DuPont) ;  Mikal Premium  (Spain)  (+iprovalicarb +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  MK 90  (+copper oxychloride)  (Chemia) ;  Moncoat MZ  (+flutolanil)  (Loveland, ;Nichino America) ;  Nautile  (+cymoxanil)  (Cequisa, ;Nufarm UK) ;  Nautilus  (+boscalid)  (BASF) ;  Noblite  (+fenamidone)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Oscar  (+flutolanil)  (Nihon Nohyaku, ;Philagro) ;  Otria Plus  (+metalaxyl)  (Probelte) ;  Oxicob Mix  (+copper oxychloride)  (Ingeniería Industrial) ;  Patafol  (+ofurace)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Planet  (+metalaxyl)  (Doğal) ;  Premitox Forte  (with copper carbonate)  (+copper oxychloride +copper sulfate)  (Premier.Shukuroglou) ;  Profilux  (+cymoxanil)  (Belchim) ;  R6 Triplo  (+cymoxanil +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Rhodax  (+fosetyl-aluminium)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Rhodax Express  (+fosetyl-aluminium)  (Philagro) ;  Rhodax M  (+fosetyl-aluminium)  (Philagro) ;  Rhythm  (+cymoxanil)  (Interfarm) ;  Rifle 44  (+cymoxanil)  (Chimiberg) ;  Roxam  (+zoxamide)  (Gowan) ;  Saaf  (+carbendazim)  (United Phosphorus) ;  Sagaie  (+fenamidone)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Sanchar  (+metalaxyl)  (Biostadt) ;  Sandofan M  (+oxadixyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Saracen  (+dimethomorph)  (BASF) ;  Sarman M  (+cymoxanil)  (Phyteurop) ;  Sarman MC  (+copper sulfate +cymoxanil)  (Phyteurop) ;  Secure  (+fenamidone)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Sidecar M  (+benalaxyl-M)  (Sipcam S.p.A.) ;  Sixer  (+carbendazim)  (Dhanuka) ;  Solace  (+cymoxanil)  (Nufarm UK) ;  Sonata  (+fenamidone)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Stimo  (+zoxamide)  (Gowan) ;  Superman  (+metalaxyl)  (Aimco) ;  Sygan LS  (+cymoxanil +folpet)  (DuPont) ;  Syphal LS  (+copper oxychloride +cymoxanil +folpet)  (DuPont) ;  Systhane F  (+myclobutanil)  (Zagro) ;  Tairel M  (+benalaxyl)  (FMC) ;  Talman-combi  (+metalaxyl)  (Cequisa) ;  Tattoo  (+propamocarb hydrochloride)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Tops MZ  (+thiophanate-methyl)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Tops MZ Gaucho  (+thiophanate-methyl +imidacloprid)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Torero  (+cymoxanil)  (Sapec) ;  Tricuproxi  (+copper oxychloride)  (Aragro) ;  Tri Fl  (+cymoxanil +folpet)  (Lainco) ;  Tri Fl+Karnak  (+captan +cymoxanil)  (Lainco) ;  Trival Forte  (+Bordeaux mixture +copper oxychloride)  (IQV) ;  Trooper  (+metalaxyl)  (Hektaş) ;  UC 70  (+copper oxychloride)  (Philagro) ;  Unikat  (+zoxamide)  (Gowan) ;  Unilax  (+metalaxyl)  (United Phosphorus) ;  Vacomil Mz-72  (+metalaxyl)  (Vapco) ;  Vimonyl  (+metalaxyl)  (Vipesco) ;  Vironex MZ  (+cymoxanil)  (IQV Italia) ;  Vironex Triple  (+copper oxychloride +cymoxanil)  (IQV) ;  Vitene Triplo  (+cymoxanil +fosetyl-aluminium)  (Sipcam S.p.A.) ;  Vitex 4/40 Combi  (+cymoxanil)  (Siapa) ;  Vitex 8/68  (+cymoxanil)  (Siapa) ;  Vitra M  (+copper hydroxide)  (IQV) ;  Yorel  (France)  (+iprovalicarb)  (Bayer CropScience) ;  Zeemil  (+metalaxyl)  (United Phosphorus) ;  Zetanil  (+cymoxanil)  (Sipcam S.p.A.) ;  Zicoluq  (+copper oxychloride)  (LUQSA) ;  Shaktis WG  (+amisulbrom)  (Nissan) Discontinued products  Blecar MN *  (La Littorale) ;  Fancozeb *  (Agrochem) ;  Helm 75 *  (PBI) ;  Kor *  (Headland) ;  Kor DF *  (Headland) ;  Kor Flo *  (Headland) ;  Mancotan *  (Agro Chemicals) ;  Mandate *  (Portman) ;  Man Gard *  (Agricultura Nacional) ;  Opie *  (PBI) ;  P.S.T. 6 *  (Simplot) ;  Quell *  (Headland) ;  Sancozeb *  (Dow AgroSciences) ;  Saver *  (Hubei Sanonda) ;  Sparsh *  (Biostadt) ;  Tariff 75 *  (PBI) ;  Zebra *  (Headland) mixtures  Adagio *  (+chlorothalonil)  (PBI) ;  Agromil MZ *  (+metalaxyl)  (Agro Chemicals) ;  Agroxyl M *  (+metalaxyl)  (Agrochem) ;  Besiege *  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  Besiege WSB *  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  Carlit *  (+fosetyl-aluminium +benalaxyl)  (Aventis) ;  Cymotine *  (+cymoxanil)  (Agro Chemicals) ;  Cymoxeb *  (+cymoxanil)  (Me2) ;  Despirol Plus *  (+kelevan)  (Spiess) ;  Fubol *  (+metalaxyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Furado *  (+pyrifenox)  (Ciba) ;  Fytospore *  (+cymoxanil)  (Zeneca) ;  Hawaii *  (+metalaxyl)  (Rocca) ;  Kombat *  (+carbendazim)  (AgrEvo, ;Hoechst, ;Stefes) ;  Manex C-8 *  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  Mankuprox *  (+copper oxychloride)  (Azot) ;  Mefenoxam MZ *  (+metalaxyl-M)  (Syngenta) ;  Osprey *  (+metalaxyl)  (Novartis) ;  Pulsan *  (+cymoxanil +oxadixyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Recoil *  (+oxadixyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Ridomil MZ *  (+metalaxyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Ripost *  (+cymoxanil +oxadixyl)  (Syngenta) ;  Septal *  (+carbendazim)  (Schering) ;  Sibutol MZA *  (+anthraquinone +bitertanol)  (Bayer) ;  Sygan PM *  (+cymoxanil +folpet)  (DuPont) ;  Syphal PM *  (+folpet +copper oxychloride +cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  Systol M *  (+cymoxanil)  (DuPont) ;  Trustan *  (+cymoxanil +oxadixyl)  (DuPont) ;  Zaron Combi *  (+anthraquinone +bitertanol)  (Bayer)

ANALYSIS
Product analysis, see CIPAC Handbook, 1998, H, 195; in mixture with copper compounds by iodometric titration of liberated carbon disulfide (ibid., 1998, H, 96); determination of manganese by titration (ibid., 1994, F, 232); ETU content by hplc or paper chromatography (ibid., 1994, F, 399). Residues determined by reaction with acid to form carbon disulfide which is measured by standard methods (Analyst (London), 1981, 106, 782; Man. Pestic. Residue Anal., p. 21; Anal. Methods Residues Pestic., 1988, Part II). See also Pestic. Anal. Man., II, 180.176, 185.6300, 186.6300. In water by lc/ms/ms (Environ. Chem. Methods).

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
Mancozeb breaks down rapidly in soil, sediment and water; terminal metabolites are natural products and with mineralisation to carbon dioxide. It does not bioaccumulate. Animals Poorly absorbed and rapidly excreted in animals. The spectrum of metabolites produced was similar in laboratory and farm animals, pointing to two common metabolic pathways, which both lead ultimately to the formation of glycine and to incorporation of the metabolites into natural products. Plants Extensively metabolised in plants, forming ethylenethiourea, ethylenethiuram monosulfide, ethylenethiuram disulfide and sulfur as transitory intermediates. Terminal metabolites are natural products, especially those derived from glycine. Soli/Environment Rapidly degraded in the environment by hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and metabolism. Soil DT50 <1 d (ave., 20 °C). Koc 998 ml/g (ave., 4 soils).

TOXICOLOGICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS
EHC 78 (1988); a general review of dithiocarbamates and their degradation products. JMPR Mtg. 74 (1995); JMPR Evaln. I 69 (1993), 75 (1995), 78 (1996), 102 (2004); JMPR Evaln. II 70 (1993). JMPR Mtg. 68 (1993); JMPR Evaln. I 69 (1993); JMPR Evaln. II 70 (1993) for metabolite ethylenethiourea. EPA RED (1995). PDS 94 (1996). ICSC 0754 (2003). CICAD 12 (1999); CICAD 63 (2004); EU Rev. Rep. SANCO/4058/2001 (2009). 91/414/EC Annex 1 status Included, 2005/72/EC.

MAMMALIAN TOXICOLOGY
Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >10€000, rabbits >5000 mg/kg. No irritation to skin (rabbits); eye irritation Category III (EPA classification). No dermal sensitisation in Buehler test; may cause dermal sensitisation in guinea pig maximisation test. Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >5.14 mg/l. NOEL Chronic NOAEL (2 y) for rats 4.8 mg/kg b.w. daily. Ethylenethiourea chronic NOAEL (2 y) for rats 0.37 mg/kg b.w. daily. Below parentally toxic levels, mancozeb was observed to have no effect on reproduction, on neonatal survival, or on growth or development. ADI (JMPR) 0.03 mg/kg b.w. (group ADI with maneb, metiram and zineb); ethylenethiourea 0.004 mg/kg b.w. [1993]; (EC) 0.05 mg/kg b.w. [2005]; (EPA) aRfD 1.3, cRfD 0.05 mg/kg b.w. [2005]; ethylenethiourea aRfD 0.005, cRfD 0.0002 mg/kg b.w. [1992]. Other At very high, maternally toxic levels, mancozeb has caused birth defects in test animals; ethylenethiourea, a trace contaminant and breakdown product of mancozeb, has caused thyroid effects, tumours and birth defects in laboratory animals. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) U EPA (formulation) IV EC classification R63| R43| N; R50 concn. dep.

ECOTOXICOLOGY
Birds Acute oral LD50 (10 d) for mallard ducks >5500, Japanese quail 5500, English sparrows (Passer domesticus) >1290, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) >2400 mg/kg. Acute dietary LC50 (8 d) for bobwhite quail and mallard ducks >5200 mg/kg diet. Chronic reproduction NOEL for mallard ducks 125, bobwhite quail 300 mg/kg diet. Fish LC50 (96 h, flow-through) for rainbow trout 1.0, bluegill sunfish >3.6 mg/l. NOEC (34 d, early life-stage) for fathead minnows 0.022 mg/l; extended growth NOEC (14 d) for rainbow trout 0.66 mg/l. Daphnia EC50 (48 h, flow-through) 3.8 mg/l. Algae EC50 (120 h, cell density) for Selenastrum capricornutum 0.044 mg/l. Other aquatic spp. EC50 (24 h) for rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus) 0.11 mg/l; LC50 (48 h) for snails (Lymnae stagnalis) >113, amphipods (Gammarus sp.) 3.0, isopods (Asellus sp.) 4.4 mg/l. Outdoor mesocosm (11 w, macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton communities), after 8 applications, EAC 0.032 mg/l. Bees LD50 (oral) >209 μg/bee; (contact) >400 μg/bee. Worms LC50 (14 d) for Eisenia foetida >1000 mg/kg soil; (56 d) reproduction NOEC for Eisenia foetida 20 mg/kg soil. Other beneficial spp. Mancozeb is of low toxicity to the majority of non-target and beneficial arthropods; LR50 (lab.) for Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Chrysoperla carnea and Poecilus cupreus >2400 g/ha, for Typhlodromus pyri 26.67 g/ha. In extended lab. tests, LR50 for Aphidius rhopalosiphi and Chrysoperla carnea >7690 g/ha, for Typhlodromus pyri 104.4 g/ha, for Orius laevigatus >3200 g/ha, for Pardosa sp. >3200 g/ha; LC50 for Hypoaspis aculeifer >4.3 mg/kg soil; (see S. A. Hassan et al., J. Appl. Ent., 1987, 103, 92–107; M. Miles, 2006, IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, in press). Toxicity to certain predatory Phytoseiidae (mites) observed in laboratory tests has not been observed in the field to the same level or extent. Field studies in vines have shown acceptable levels of effect compatible with IPM on a range of predatory phytoseiid species when used according to good agricultural practice. Where effects are noted, mite populations have been shown to recover rapidly (M. Miles & E. Green, Proc. BCPC Conf. – Pests Dis., 2002, 1, 297–302; M. Miles & G. Kemmitt, 2006, Proc. 57th Intl. Symp. Crop Prot., in Comm. Agr. & Appl. Biol. Sci.).

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